Game Media Digital Artefact; Let’s Play FFIV Remakes

I’ve been working on a “Let’s Play” series of Final Fantasy IV (1991). This game has a special place in my heart; it was one of the first games to make me realise while growing up that video games are media texts capable of telling complex, compelling narratives just like film, television, and other forms of digital media. However, I believe that if it weren’t for my encounter with the Nintendo DS remake (2007) of this classic SNES game, I probably would have never played a single Final Fantasy game in all my life. For this reason, I wanted to make a digital artefact that analyses the intertextual value of remaking classic video games on newer platforms with increased software and hardware capabilities. The “Let’s Play” format allows me to share my own meaningful FFIV experience with an online audience that features comment, praise and critique on each of my selected remakes. Hopefully I am creating a valuable media paratext with social utility for fans of the Final Fantasy series, and also for newcomers who wish to learn about the Final Fantasy games and their stories.

Active audience members, fans in particular, challenge media researchers to look not only at their consumption of the primary object of interest but also at how fans interact with other fans, how they make sense of their interests, how their interest is sustained through intertextual means, and how they go beyond mere consumption to active production of media of their own that comment on, praise, and critique the media products that so interest them.

Consalvo, M. (2003). Zelda 64 and Video Game Fans: A Walkthrough of Games, Intertextuality, and Narrative. Television & New Media, 4(3), 321–334. 

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Research

After settling on my concept, I began to research my topic by gathering any useful sources of information that would help in forming an analytical framework and guide my digital creation process. I started by reading popular news articles from game media websites ([1], [2], [3]) about ‘good’ and ‘bad’ video game remakes. These lists mostly outlined reasons for and against remakes in terms of each game’s formal elements; graphics, sound, gameplay features, controls, characters, narrative etc. Although this structuralist approach is essential to the appraisal of a remake, there is also a post-structuralist layer beneath the surface that is important in understanding why changes to the game’s formal elements are considered either ‘good’ or ‘bad’.

I decided to gather some primary data by polling fans of the Final Fantasy series on Reddit (r/finalfantasy), in two threads that can be found here and here. There were many different responses reflecting individual player experiences.

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I also looked at an interview with the original lead designer of Final Fantasy IV, Takashi Tokita, which discusses the PSP remake release. It provided rich insight into the development of this version and how it aimed to capture the integrity of the original while still enhancing the experience, something that I found through my primary research is important to many fans when assessing a remake.

Finally, David Heineman’s (2014) analysis of public memory, retrogaming, and nostalgia was useful in understanding why players enjoy and anticipate remakes. It allows them to revisit an aspect of shared public memory with a fresh coat of paint and quality of life improvements designed to enhance an experience that already is avidly replayed in retrogaming communities. This essay also briefly touches on emulation, a method of replaying old video games on PC that transforms the experience with new features (save states, romhacking, fast-forward). Because of these convenient features and ease of recording footage through console emulation, I chose to use this method when creating my “Let’s Play”.

What is interesting about nostalgia in video gaming is that re-released games do, in a sense, afford players the possibility to return to an exact same “home,” a virtual environment that was present when they originally played a particular game.

Purchasing a used Nintendo Entertainment System and playing the original Final Fantasy game more than twenty years after it was initially released results in a much different kind of nostalgic experience (one that requires one’s physical and mental attention) than can be provided by more passive nostalgic media experiences, such as viewing a film or playing records.

Retrogaming communities facilitate shared reminiscences about those “homes” to which participants continually return.

Heineman, David. (2014). Public Memory and Gamer Identity: Retrogaming as Nostalgia. Journal of Games Criticism, 1(1), 1–24.

 

Analytical Framework

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The design of my analytical framework was guided by Clara Fernández-Vara’s Introduction to Game Analysis and my research.

Firstly, my goal is to unpack the intertextual value of remakes for two different types of players; those who have played the original game, and those who have not. It is clear that my approach to appraising a remake should change under this condition, as it represents a shift in context surrounding the player’s experience. For example, with Final Fantasy IV, a fan will play the remake and assess it in relation to their personal experience with the original game. However, a newcomer will go through the meaning-making process differently. The value of a Final Fantasy IV remake to newcomers could be found in the ease of accessibility when released on newer platforms, or in any other changes and updates that help lower the entry barrier.

After considering the context surrounding player experiences and the socio-cultural environment in which the remake was released, I analyse the player experience itself. This is a post-structuralist look into how the remakes are received by players. My “Let’s Play” will act as a shared and documented player experience that pays careful attention to each remake in relation to each other and the original game. While doing so, I will be mindful of acknowledging player experiences and opinions that are different to my own, based on my primary research from Reddit and other fan forums.

Which brings me to the final point of my triangulation, the changes made in each remake’s formal elements. These will be observed through comparison, and then discussed in relation to the context and player experience. In Final Fantasy IV, the most relevant of these formal elements are the graphics (backgrounds and character sprites/portraits), music, difficulty, battle system, localisation (script), and various smaller gameplay features.

 

Methodology and Progress

I had originally intended to upload this “Let’s Play” series to the Twitch streaming platform, though later changed to YouTube instead. I outlined my reasons for this change in my project beta; the game did not suit the live stream format due to long periods of repeated grinding and dungeon crawling that halted progression through the game’s narrative, and it was also alienating my existing aggregated Twitch audience (I usually live stream competitive digital card games and tournaments). This was apparent through a lack of initial engagement with my digital artefact.

Now, by cutting and editing my “Let’s Play” footage I am able to create an abridged and cinematic experience for my viewers. The first episode of my series, uploaded to YouTube and then shared both on Twitter and Reddit, received significantly more engagement than my live streams. I even got a few subscribers on my brand new channel. The only issue I’ve run into so far is low audience retention, which is likely due to having about 2-3 minutes of just analysis and discussion about the remake at the beginning of the video. I plan to change this in future by moving that content to the video description, and instead jumping straight into gameplay. I’d also like to improve my video thumbnails, using other popular “Let’s Play” channels as a reference point.

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Audience Retention

I am emulating three different versions of FFIV on my PC and recording my footage with Open Broadcaster Software. This footage is then edited in Sony Vegas and uploaded to my YouTube channel. Each episode is about 25 minutes long. Between each episode, I seamlessly switch to a different FFIV remake, picking up from exactly where I left in the previous episode. In order to achieve this, I have to play through each version up to my desired game state and then create a save file at this point. Although it sounds tricky, I have made a written plan of the exact points in the narrative I want to stop and start at so that I can prepare save files ahead of time. This method also benefits greatly from the console emulators’ save-state and fast-forward features.

 

Conclusion and Reflection

After receiving feedback for my beta, I aimed to integrate more course concepts into my media analysis. The Heineman reading about nostalgia and retrogaming was very relevant and useful to my topic. When discussing how some gamers prefer 2D sprites to 3D character models from some remakes, or changes to the game’s musical score due to hardware limitations, I was able to apply concepts relating to shared public memory and the re-visiting of familiar virtual spaces and how they facilitate a nostalgic, retrogaming community. I have also been using passive audience engagement as a feedback loop, with an increase in views, likes and subscribers indicating a successful iteration cycle for my project. Overall, I am very happy with the trajectory of my digital artefact, and I feel like I’ve laid the foundations of a project I’d like to continue outside of this subject. My digital literacy in video-editing has definitely improved, as previously I’ve only ever done live streams with very minimal time spent video-editing my own projects. As for how I’d approach this idea differently next time, I found it difficult to increase the depth of my analysis throughout my “Let’s Play” commentary, as I was focused on gameplay and using a casual tone. I think this project would benefit from a supplementary blog post or video essay that clearly outlined my main arguments about the value of each remake.

critical self-reflection of comments (part 2)

Beta #1; ‘Mr Pickles Wants Your Ball’ by Hannah

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Hannah is making a short series of video essays about game modding as participatory media culture, focusing on the ‘Vinesauce Corruption Mod’ for Nintendogs. She has uploaded a prototype video and further developed her analytical framework.

In my comment, I told Hannah that her research and engagement with the subject materials has been thorough and comprehensive. I shared an academic research report about modding (Bostan & Kaplancali) that examines the psychoanalytical aspects of modding, including player motivations and intentions. I also talked about different types of modding, contrasting fun, “breaking” mods to practical, “fixing” mods. I’m hoping Hannah considers these approaches to analysing mods in her upcoming video essays. I gave some feedback for the video essay, suggesting more humor and the implimentation of an informal tone to match the fun, silly nature of the ‘Corruption Mod’. Finally, I recommended some outlets for help with setting up and using the ‘DeSmuMe’ Nintendo DS emulator to avoid future complications with capturing gameplay.

[Hannah’s Blog]

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Beta #2; ‘AI in Video Games’ by Tamara

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Tamara is writing a series of blog posts exploring Artificial Intelligence in video games, observing a variety of games such as Mario Kart and Fortnite. She has made two blog posts in total, and intends to create more while also updating her existing ones.

In my comment, I told Tamara that I liked her blog post format because it compliments her topic. My main point of feedback was that she could have chosen more suitable titles for exploring AI in video games, in particular Fortnite ‘Battle Royale’ does not have a clear use of AI technologies because it does not have NPC’s. I shared a variety of news articles and Reddit threads that list game titles known for good or bad AI implementation, and suggested that Tamara use the media archaeology approach in her analysis. I also shared a journal article (Michael Mateas) about expressive AI in video game design. I praised Tamara for making her blogs a multimedia experience with embedded videos and podcasts, and recommended she record her planned interview with a twitch streamer in a podcast format too.

[Tamara’s Blog]

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Beta #3; ‘Scaping a Re-Birth’ by Serena

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Serena is unpacking the role of nostalgia in either reviving popular video games, or potentially compromising their future development. She is using the divide between Old School RuneScape (OSRS) and the flagship RuneScape 3 (RS3) as an example. The DA will be one large multimedia blog post, and so far Serena has published a draft including a complete interview with an OSRS player.

In my comment, I told Serena that the primary research methods on her blog and beta video will be very effective in enriching her final post. I also complimented her main thesis of ‘re-birth or division’ in the RuneScape community, and cited similar cases where separate communities are developing around the new and old versions of popular MMORPG’s. I also commented on the prevalence of nostalgia marketing in the gaming industry in the released remakes of classic games and consoles. I gave Serena some general feedback about the formatting of her blog post, and shared a brief web article (Mark Hill) about the potentially risky patterns of nostalgia marketing in the gaming industry to help with her argument of nostalgia hindering a game’s future development. I did not suggest much for Serena about her DA’s direction because I was already impressed by the trajectory of her project.

[Serena’s Blog]

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Critical Self-Reflection

With this round of comments, I consciously attempted to make my feedback more brief and concise. I think I succeeded in posting shorter comments, though one comment may still be considered lengthy because I felt it was necessary to give comprehensive feedback in that case. I think my biggest improvement was that I focused on the direction of each person’s DA and offered suggestions for enhancing their projects, rather than my previous overly-analytical approach that mostly assessed the blog posts and videos based on the marking criteria. I also believe that I engaged with the subject materials and concepts more in my feedback this time. Most importantly, looking at other DA’s through a critical lens has allowed me to practice the essential skill of reflection and critique in the context of digital literacy. In turn, I will now be able to assess my own DA more effectively by applying the same method of review throughout my progress.

prototyping the “let’s play” shuffle; even a lack of engagement is useful feedback

 

Following up on my Digital Artefact pitch; After prototyping two live-streams on my Twitch channel, I’ve made a few changes to my format, though my concept remains intact. I’ve further developed my analytical framework using Clara Fernández-Vara’s book Introduction to Game Analysis’ as a guide. 

Unfortunately, my Twitch chat was entirely dead for both streams, and I peaked at 4 unique viewers. It seems despite already aggregating an audience for my channel, the drastic difference in content did not appeal to any of my 55 followers. I can’t say much about how effective sharing the event on my socials was either. I have decided the live-stream format won’t work for this ‘Let’s Play’ series. By attaching the episodes to a schedule and trying to encourage live discussion, I am also (inadvertently) discouraging engagement with the video after the broadcast as well. Many people will miss the live stream due to time zones or their own personal schedules, not all potential viewers will catch the Twitch VOD (video on demand), and having long sections of my streams without any commentary lessens the quality of the content when watching it ‘un-live’ on YouTube re-uploads.

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Screenshot from one stream. The large blank space to the right of the gameplay window was for two reasons; a) I didn’t want to stretch the resolution of the GameBoy emulator too much as the image would possibly be blurry or lower quality, b) the empty space was meant to be accommodating an embedded live chat, that did not get used at all 😔 meaning that on a YouTube video episode, this layout looks awkward and has too much negative space.

Initially I considered changing the format to an entirely different one, such as critical blog posts or a video essay series. However, a comment on my DA pitch prompted me to research further into the ‘Let’s Play’ subculture. I found an article by Burwell and Miller in the E-Learning and Digital Media journal that explores the ‘Let’s Play’ genre and its function as a gaming paratext. They argue that LP’s allow commentary and analysis that develops gaming literacy.

“In recent years, a great deal of scholarly work has been done to consider video games as productive sites for the development of creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and collaborative skills (e.g., Gee, 2003Hayes and Duncan, 2012Steinkuehler, 2007). This work has challenged the video game’s reputation as a mindless diversion, and has instead shown that games encourage thinking and learning, and play an important role in the production of cultural capital amongst young people. Much of this work explores games as a form of literacy.”

“Inherent in the Let’s Play video is an invitation to viewers to join in the game play; here, we invite the reader to see the complex meaning-making and social practices associated with this emerging paratext.”

– Burwell, C., & Miller, T. (2016).

After reading this article, I was assured that I would be able to effectively use the LP genre as my DA format when analysing and making meaning of the Final Fantasy games. I’ve decided that YouTube seems to be the most appropriate platform for an LP series as twitch channels often fall into either competitive or social streamer categories, the latter requiring lots of time to build-up an engaged and loyal viewership. I’ll be editing and cutting down my gameplay footage to make my commentary more consistent, reduce long periods of level grinding, and overall make the LP more abridged and cinematic. Finally, I’ve chosen to split the game into six episodes of three ‘acts’, with each ‘act’ being played as one of three different versions of the game.

 

References

Burwell, C., & Miller, T. (2016). Let’s Play: Exploring literacy practices in an emerging videogame paratext. E-Learning and Digital Media13(3–4), 109–125.

Fernández-Vara, C. (2015). Introduction to Game Analysis. 1st ed. New York, NY: Routledge. 

critical self-reflection of comments

Pitch #1; ‘Crunchy Bytes’ by Tim

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Tim is going to be making a video essay series discussing the impact of hardware limitations on game development over the years. In his pitch, he presents the source engine of ‘Half Life 2‘ as an example of ambitious game development that pushed the boundaries of hardware at the time.

In my comment, I recommended Marshall McLuhan’s ‘Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man’ as a potential source of information for the video essays. I commended his editing skills and the overall presentation of his video, and suggested using subtitle tracks for following videos to help with audio/mic issues. I gave him feedback for improving his blog post’s formatting and tone, but overall his pitch was in-depth and covered all criteria. Tim put lots of effort into planning his research and analytical framework in particular.

Tim’s Blog

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Pitch #2; ‘Movie Tie-Ins’ by Chris

maxresdefault.jpgChris is writing a series of blogs reviewing old video game titles that are based on movies. Some examples of these games Chris provides are ‘GoldenEye 007‘ and ‘Spider-Man 2‘, noting that they also acted as promo-material for their respective movie releases.

In my comment, I provided some examples of modern video games based on movies, and recommended one book and one academic article relating to paratexts in digital media. I gave him feedback for improving his pitch and developing his idea, because Chris seemed a little unsure about some aspects of his DA plan. I also suggested that he frame his blog posts as a ‘critical analysis’ instead of a ‘review’, using the frameworks discussed in class in his writing.

Chris’ Blog

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Pitch #3; ‘Going AFK’ by Kiana

landscape_angry-gamer-1140x570.jpgKiana is putting together a podcast that discusses the issue of cyber-bullying and toxicity in online multiplayer games. She talks about the common harassment gamers experience when communicating online, and mentions sexist comments as a particularly alarming aspect of toxic behaviours.

In my comment I shared one web article and one academic source about toxicity in gaming and how it affects players, and also how game companies are combating the issue. I complimented Kiana’s presentation and her ability to cover all the criteria points concisely in her video. I had one small criticism of her blog’s formatting, recommending that she spread out her statistics across her post rather than having them all in one paragraph. I think that this DA pitch had a great focus on social utility and was well-planned.

Kiana’s Blog

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Critical Self-Reflection

After reflecting on my feedback and seeing my peers’ comments, I feel as though I may have been overly-analytical and wordy in my responses to the DA pitches. I think that in some of my comments, I have focused too much on the assignment criteria and how successfully they achieved their video and blog post. I should have offered more in terms of engaging with and suggesting ideas for their DA’s. Hopefully in the next round of posts with the project beta, I will be able to give my peers some extra input into the direction of their DA. I also will try to be more concise, as my lengthy feedback may be too overwhelming.

 

the “let’s play” shuffle

 

There are numerous remakes of classic video games in existence across all genres and eras of gaming. Some are praised for bringing old classics back in peak form, while others suffer criticism due to questionable design choices or other disappointing decisions that leave fans upset by poor performance and a disregard for the original game’s legacy. It begs the question; what criteria do gamers consider when assessing the value of a remake? What makes a remake successful?

It’s also important to understand the intertextual value that remakes have for fans of a series. It’s no coincidence that the titles being updated, their legacy carried forward through the rapid progression of gaming tech capabilities, are usually very popular or considered a ‘classic’ by fans. Some examples of highly anticipated upcoming remakes would be the ultra-hyped Final Fantasy VII for PS4, or Nintendo’s recently announced remake of the Zelda series title Link’s Awakening for the Switch. These remakes allow fans to re-experience a beloved game from childhood in a new form, or can bring newcomers and younger players into the fold by migrating the experience onto modern platforms.

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I’m excited to be playing one of my favourite games of all time, Final Fantasy IV, and streaming the experience to my twitch channel. I believe that it will be enjoyable for both myself and my audience to play through a classic game in a fun, unique way by swapping between different remake versions throughout the “Let’s Play” series. I hope to be successfully comparing, analysing, and evaluating each iteration in community discussion, creating a case study for the intertextual value of video game remakes.

 

References

Doucet, L. (2015). Doing an HD Remake the Right Way : FFVI Edition. Fortress of Doors.

Leadbetter, R. (2012). What Went Wrong with Silent Hill HD?. Eurogamer.

Schreier, J. (2019). Final Fantasy VII Remake Feels Great To Play, But The Project Might Not Be Finished For A While. Kotaku.

Souppouris, A. (2019). The Link’s Awakening remake feels exactly like it should. Engadget.